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    Aussie rules

    aussie rules

    Mai Laut einer Studie der Regierung ist die beliebteste Sportart Australian Rules Football, kurz „Footy“. (17% aller Aussies sahen im Jahr Von März bis September treten die Teams des Australian Rules Football (AFL) gegeneinander an, um die acht Mannschaften zu küren, die in die Finalserie. Mai Laut einer Studie der Regierung ist die beliebteste Sportart Australian Rules Football, kurz „Footy“. (17% aller Aussies sahen im Jahr Dies ist die gesichtete Version , die am 2. Falls der Ball die Seitenlinie boundary line überquert, gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten. Das Prellen, der Schuss im Lauf und das Fausten bzw. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Wiener Dingos haben den Spielbetrieb eingestellt. In Australien ist Australian Football somit die populärste Liga bezüglich des Zuschauerzuspruchs und nach Cricket die zweitbeliebteste Sportart bezüglich des Fernsehzuspruchs. Die beiden mittleren sind die Tor-Pfosten goal posts und die kleineren zu jeder Seite die Neben-Pfosten behind posts auch Punkt-Pfosten point posts genannt. Dieses System funktioniert erstaunlich gut. Der letzte Punktestand würde das Spiel gewinnen, obwohl das Team ein Tor weniger geschossen hat. Drei tolle Tage in Melbourne. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Australian Football ist eine Vollkontakt-Sportart. Wenn man dann noch bedenkt, dass beim Aussie Rules ohne Schutzkleidung gespielt sind, kann man sich vorstellen, dass blaue Flecken an der Tagesordnung stehen.

    Aussie rules -

    Greater Western Sydney Giants. Niko - Hallo alle miteinander, ich habe bereits die deutsche und noch eine andere europäische Staatsangehörigkeit und würde auch noch gerne australischer Zehn der 18 Vereine kommen immer noch aus Victoria, neun davon aus Melbourne und den Vororten dieser Stadt. Oktober vor fast Final appeal for Pakistani woman on death row for 'blasphemy'.

    Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark , where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick with specific conditions are awarded possession.

    Players can tackle using their hands or use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact such as pushing an opponent in the back , interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.

    The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking , fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring.

    The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne , Victoria in , inspired by English public school football games.

    Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May , making it the oldest of the world's major football codes.

    Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, [6] [7] while the Australian Football League AFL , the sport's only fully professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body.

    The sport is also played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations. Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules, football and footy.

    There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing , football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, and while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football.

    On 10 July , the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills , captain of the Victoria cricket team , calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.

    His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football.

    Trees were used as goalposts and play typically lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all".

    Another significant milestone in was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College , held at the Richmond Paddock.

    This a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam , began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.

    Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football , which was not codified until The evidence for this is only circumstantial, and according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost solely influenced by his experience at Rugby School".

    A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of These are the laws from which Australian football evolved.

    The rules were distributed throughout the colony; Thompson in particular did much to promote the new code in his capacity as a journalist.

    Following Melbourne's lead, Geelong and Melbourne University also formed football clubs in A South Yarra side devised its own rules. Harrison , [37] an influential pioneer who took up football in at the invitation of Wills, his cousin.

    The game around this time was defensive and low-scoring, played low to the ground in congested rugby-style scrimmages. The typical match was a per-side affair, played with a ball that was roughly spherical, and lasted until a team scored two goals.

    Football gradually adapted to an oval-shaped field, and most grounds in Victoria expanded to accommodate the dual purpose—a situation that continues to this day.

    Football became organised in South Australia in with the formation of the Adelaide Football Club , the oldest football club in Australia outside Victoria.

    As clubs began touring the colonies in the late s, the sport spread to New South Wales , and in , the first intercolonial match took place in Melbourne between Victoria and South Australia.

    The sport reached Queensland as early as , and experienced a period of dominance there, [48] but, like in New Zealand and areas of New South Wales north of the Riverina , it struggled to thrive, largely due to the spread of rugby football with British migration, regional rivalries and the lack of strong local governing bodies.

    In the case of Sydney , denial of access to grounds, the influence of university headmasters from Britain who favoured rugby, and the loss of players to other codes inhibited the game's growth.

    In , delegates from six of the wealthiest VFA clubs— Carlton , Essendon , Fitzroy , Geelong, Melbourne and South Melbourne —met to discuss the formation of a breakaway professional competition.

    The VFL's popularity grew rapidly as it made several innovations, such as instituting a finals system, reducing teams from 20 to 18 players, and introducing the behind as a score.

    While scratch matches were played by Australian " diggers " in remote locations around the world, the game lost many of its great players to wartime service.

    Some clubs and competitions never fully recovered. Between and , a proposed hybrid code of Australian football and rugby league , the predominant code of football in New South Wales and Queensland, was trialed without success.

    In Queensland, the state league went into recess for the duration of the war. VFL club University left the league and went into recess due to severe casualties.

    The role of the Australian National Football Council ANFC was primarily to govern the game at a national level and to facilitate interstate representative and club competition.

    The ANFC ran the Championship of Australia , the first national club competition, which commenced in and saw clubs from different states compete on an even playing field.

    The last match was played in , with North Adelaide being the last non-Victorian winner in Between and , the ANFC, and later the Australian Football Championships AFC ran a night series , which invited clubs and representative sides from around the country to participate in a knock-out tournament parallel to the premiership seasons, which Victorian sides still dominated.

    With the lack of international competition, state representative matches were regarded with great importance.

    The Australian Football Council co-ordinated regular interstate carnivals, including the Australasian Football Jubilee , held in Melbourne in to celebrate the game's semicentenary.

    State of Origin rules, introduced in , stipulated that rather than representing the state of their adopted club, players would return to play for the state they were first recruited in.

    This instantly broke Victoria's stranglehold over state titles and Western Australia and South Australia began to win more of their games against Victoria.

    The term " Barassi Line ", named after VFL star Ron Barassi , was coined by scholar Ian Turner in to describe the "fictitious geographical barrier" separating large parts of New South Wales and Queensland which predominately followed the two rugby codes from the rest of the country, where Australian football reigned.

    The way the game was played had changed dramatically due to innovative coaching tactics, with the phasing out of many of the game's kicking styles and the increasing use of handball; while presentation was influenced by television.

    In , in a move that heralded big changes within the sport, one of the original VFL clubs, South Melbourne, relocated to Sydney and became known as the Sydney Swans.

    In the late s, due to the poor financial standing of many of the Victorian clubs, and a similar situation existing in Western Australia in the sport, the VFL pursued a more national competition.

    Two more non-Victorian clubs, West Coast and Brisbane , joined the league in To protect these revenues the VFL granted significant draft concessions and financial aid to keep the expansion clubs competitive.

    Each club was required to pay a licence fee which allowed the Victorian-based clubs to survive. Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney. Following the emergence of the AFL, state leagues were quickly relegated to a second-tier status.

    State of Origin also declined in importance, especially after an increasing number of player withdrawals. State and territorial leagues still contest interstate matches, as do AFL Women players.

    The AFL signalled further attempts at expansion in the s by hosting home-and-away matches in New Zealand, [63] followed by China.

    Australian rules football playing fields have no fixed dimensions but at senior level are typically between and metres long and and metres wide wing-to-wing.

    The field, like the ball, is oval-shaped, and in Australia, cricket grounds are often used. No more than 18 players of each team or, in AFL Women's, 16 players are permitted to be on the field at any time.

    Up to four interchange reserve players may be swapped for those on the field at any time during the game. In Australian rules terminology , these players wait for substitution "on the bench"—an area with a row of seats on the sideline.

    Players must interchange through a designated interchange "gate" with strict penalties for too many players from one team on the field.

    In addition, some leagues have each team designate one player as a substitute who can be used to make a single permanent exchange of players during a game.

    There is no offside rule nor are there set positions in the rules; unlike many other forms of football, players from both teams may disperse across the whole field before the start of play.

    However, a typical on-field structure consists of six forwards , six defenders or "backmen" and six midfielders , usually two wingmen , one centre and three followers , including a ruckman , ruck-rover and rover.

    There are also other rules pertaining to allowed player positions during set plays that is, after a mark or free kick and during kick-ins following the scoring of a behind.

    A game consists of four quarters and a timekeeper officiates their duration. At the professional level, each quarter consists of 20 minutes of play, with the clock being stopped for instances such as scores, the ball going out of bounds or at the umpire's discretion, e.

    Lower grades of competition might employ shorter quarters of play. The umpire signals time-off to stop the clock for various reasons, such as the player in possession being tackled into stagnant play.

    Time resumes when the umpire signals time-on or when the ball is brought into play. Stoppages cause quarters to extend approximately 5—10 minutes beyond the 20 minutes of play.

    The official game clock is available only to the timekeeper s , and is not displayed to the players, umpires or spectators.

    The only public knowledge of game time is when the timekeeper sounds a siren at the start and end of each quarter.

    Coaching staff may monitor the game time themselves and convey information to players via on-field trainers or substitute players.

    Broadcasters usually display an approximation of the official game time for television audiences, although some will now show the exact time remaining in a quarter.

    Games are officiated by umpires. Before the game, the winner of a coin toss determines which directions the teams will play to begin. Australian football begins after the first siren , when the umpire bounces the ball on the ground or throws it into the air if the condition of the ground is poor , and the two ruckmen typically the tallest players from each team battle for the ball in the air on its way back down.

    This is known as the ball-up. Certain disputes during play may also be settled with a ball-up from the point of contention.

    If the ball is kicked or hit from a ball-up or boundary throw-in over the boundary line or into a behind post without the ball bouncing, a free kick is paid for out of bounds on the full.

    A free kick is also paid if the ball is deemed by the umpire to have been deliberately carried or directed out of bounds. If the ball travels out of bounds in any other circumstances for example, contested play results in the ball being knocked out of bounds a boundary umpire will stand with his back to the infield and return the ball into play with a throw-in , a high backwards toss back into the field of play.

    The ball can be propelled in any direction by way of a foot, clenched fist called a handball or handpass or open-hand tap but it cannot be thrown under any circumstances.

    Once a player takes possession of the ball he must dispose of it by either kicking or handballing it. Any other method of disposal is illegal and will result in a free kick to the opposing team.

    This is usually called "incorrect disposal", "dropping the ball" or "throwing". If the ball is not in the possession of one player it can be moved on with any part of the body.

    Opposition players may bump or tackle the player to obtain the ball and, when tackled, the player must dispose of the ball cleanly or risk being penalised for holding the ball.

    The ball carrier may only be tackled between the shoulders and knees. If the opposition player forcefully contacts a player in the back while performing a tackle, the opposition player will be penalised for a push in the back.

    If the opposition tackles the player with possession below the knees a low tackle or a trip or above the shoulders a high tackle , the team with possession of the football gets a free kick.

    Alternatively, he may choose to "play on" forfeiting the set shot in the hope of pressing an advantage for his team rather than allowing the opposition to reposition while he prepares for the free kick.

    Once a player has chosen to play on, normal play resumes and the player who took the mark is again able to be tackled. There are different styles of kicking depending on how the ball is held in the hand.

    The most common style of kicking seen in today's game, principally because of its superior accuracy, is the drop punt , where the ball is dropped from the hands down, almost to the ground, to be kicked so that the ball rotates in a reverse end over end motion as it travels through the air.

    Other commonly used kicks are the torpedo punt also known as the spiral, barrel, or screw punt , where the ball is held flatter at an angle across the body, which makes the ball spin around its long axis in the air, resulting in extra distance similar to the traditional motion of an American football punt , and the checkside punt or "banana", kicked across the ball with the outside of the foot used to curve the ball towards the right if kicked off the right foot towards targets that are on an angle.

    There is also the "snap", which is almost the same as a checkside punt except that it is kicked off the inside of the foot and curves in the opposite direction.

    It is also possible to kick the ball so that it bounces along the ground. This is known as a "grubber". Grubbers can bounce in a straight line, or curve to the left or right.

    Apart from free kicks, marks or when the ball is in the possession of an umpire for a ball up or throw in , the ball is always in dispute and any player from either side can take possession of the ball.

    A goal , worth 6 points, is scored when the football is propelled through the goal posts at any height including above the height of the posts by way of a kick from the attacking team.

    It may fly through "on the full" without touching the ground or bounce through, but must not have been touched, on the way, by any player from either team or a goalpost.

    A goal cannot be scored from the foot of an opposition defending player. A behind , worth 1 point, is scored when the ball passes between a goal post and a behind post at any height, or if the ball hits a goal post, or if any player sends the ball between the goal posts by touching it with any part of the body other than a foot.

    A behind is also awarded to the attacking team if the ball touches any part of an opposition player, including a foot, before passing between the goal posts.

    When an opposition player deliberately scores a behind for the attacking team generally as a last resort to ensure that a goal is not scored this is termed a rushed behind.

    As of the AFL season , a free kick is awarded against any player who deliberately rushes a behind. The goal umpire signals a goal with two hands pointed forward at elbow height, or a behind with one hand.

    The goal umpire then waves flags above their heads to communicate this information to the goal umpire at the opposite end of the ground.

    The team that has scored the most points at the end of play wins the game. If the scores are level on points at the end of play, then the game is a draw; extra time applies only during finals matches in some competitions.

    As an example of a score report, consider a match between Essendon and Melbourne with the former as the home team.

    Essendon's score of 11 goals and 14 behinds equates to 80 points. Melbourne's score of 10 goals and 7 behinds equates to a point tally.

    Essendon wins the match by a margin of 13 points. Such a result would be written as:. The home team is typically listed first and the visiting side is listed second.

    The scoreline is written with respect to the home side. For example, Port Adelaide won in successive weeks, once as the home side and once as the visiting side.

    These would be written out thus:. The football season proper is from March to August early autumn to late winter in Australia with finals being held in September and October.

    Most of these hold annual semi-professional club competitions while the others oversee more than one league. Local semi-professional or amateur organisations and competitions are often affiliated to their state organisations.

    The AFL is the de facto world governing body for Australian football. There are also a number of affiliated organisations governing amateur clubs and competitions around the world.

    For almost all Australian football club competitions the aim is to win the Premiership. The premiership is always decided by a finals series. The teams that occupy the highest positions on the ladder after the home-and-away season play off in a "semi-knockout" finals series, culminating in a single Grand Final match to determine the premiers.

    Typically between four and eight teams contest the finals series. The team which finishes first on the ladder after the home-and-away season is referred to as a " minor premier ", but this usually holds little stand-alone significance, other than receiving a better draw in the finals.

    Many suburban and amateur leagues have a sufficient number of teams to be played across several tiered divisions, with promotion of the lower division premiers and relegation of the upper division's last placed team at the end of each year.

    At present, none of the top level national or state level leagues in Australia are large enough to warrant this structure. The high level of interest shown by women in Australian football is considered unique among the world's football codes.

    In terms of participation, there are occasional 19th-century references to women playing the sport, but it was not until the s that the first organised women's teams and competitions appeared.

    Many related games have emerged from Australian football, mainly with variations of contact to encourage greater participation.

    These include Auskick played by children aged between 5 and 12 , kick-to-kick and its variants end-to-end footy and marks up , rec footy , 9-a-side footy , masters Australian football , handball and longest-kick competitions.

    Written record of such traditional pastimes is otherwise scant and as there is no known record of these pastimes in traditional Indigenous Australian art it is not possible to trace its history further.

    The Marn Grook connection is argued as follows. Wills arrived in Victoria's western district in As the only white child in the district, it is said that he was fluent in the local dialect and frequently played with local Aboriginal children on his father's property, Lexington , outside of the town of Moyston.

    However the relationship of the Wills family with local Djabwurrung people is well documented. Jim Poulter has argued that there was a direct link between the Australian rules football and sports played by some members of the indigenous Australian population.

    Poulter argues that Tom Wills had knowledge of Aboriginal oral traditions and language. However, when the rules of Australian rules football were codified, the status of Aboriginal culture in Australia was such that Wills may have been disadvantaged had he mentioned any connection, and as such "had no reason to mention this in discussions".

    Gillian Hibbins in the AFL's official account of the game's history published in for the game's th celebrations sternly rejects the theory:.

    Hibbin's account was widely publicised [33] but was criticised by some indigenous Australians. The question of whether Australian rules football and Gaelic football have shared origins arises because it is clear even to casual observers that the two games are similar.

    O'Dwyer [ citation needed ] and Richard Davis [ citation needed ] have supported the theory that Australian rules football and Gaelic Football have some common origins.

    Though Australian historians, including Geoffrey Blainey , Leonie Sandercock and Ian Turner have specifically rejected any such connection,.

    Since none of the modern football games had been codified at the time, these matches were a traditional gaelic form of football such as caid.

    Patrick O'Farrell has pointed out that another Irish sport with ancient origins, hurling — which has similar rules to Gaelic football — was played in Australia as early as the s, and may also have been an influence on the Australian game.

    O'Dwyer suggested that there is circumstantial evidence that traditional Irish games influenced the founders of Australian rules.

    These are all elements of Irish football. There were several variations of Irish football in existence, normally without the benefit of rulebooks, but the central tradition in Ireland was in the direction of the relatively new game [i.

    Their presence in Victorian football may be accounted for in terms of a formative influence being exerted by men familiar with and no doubt playing the Irish game.

    It is not that they were introduced into the game from that motive [i. Atkinson considers it likely that Geelong's rules were drawn up prior to the first rules of the Melbourne Football Club which were drafted on 17 May In support of his theory are his "records" of the first recorded champion of formalised football in Victoria was Corio Bay later Geelong in and he also claims that an interclub match occurred between Melbourne Cricketers and Geelong in under compromise rules.

    The rules allegedly used by the Geelong Football Club in were originally written down by hand, [42] however there is no record of them from earlier than when they were incorporated by way of compromise into the official Victorian Rules by H C A Harrison and committee:.

    Distance between goals and the goal posts to be decided by captains. Teams of 25 in grand matches, but up to 30 against odds.

    Matches to be played in 2 halves of 50 minutes. At the end of first 50 teams may leave ground for 20 minutes for refreshments but must be ready to resume on time otherwise rival captain can call game off or if his side has scored claim it as a win.

    Game played with yard [sic. When kicked behind goal, ball may be brought 20 yards in front of any portion of the space between the kick off and kicked as nearly as possibly [sic.

    Ball must be bounced every 10 or 20 yards if carried. Tripping, holding, hacking prohibited. Pushing with hands or body is allowed when any player is in rapid motion or in possession of ball, except in the case of a mark.

    Mark is when a player catches the ball before it hits the ground and has been clearly kicked by another player. Handball only allowed if ball held clearly in one hand and punched or hit out with other.

    If caught, no mark. Before game captains toss for ends. In case of infringements, captain may claim free from where breach occurred. Except where umpires appointed, opposing captain to adjudicate.

    In all grand matches two umpires — one from each side — will take up position as near as possible between the goal posts and centre.

    When breach is made appeal to go to nearest umpire. In the 21st century the role played by Tom Wills in the establishment of the game is generally recognised as pivotal.

    However, in the latter part of the 19th century and much of the 20th, H. Harrison was accepted as "the father of Australian rules football".

    He was to become a vice-president of the Victorian Football Association and later the inaugural chairman of the Victorian Football League and was actively associated with the Melbourne Football Club until the late s.

    Journalist Martin Flanagan postulates that the game's administrators engaged in historical revisionism of the story of Tom Wills involvement in the origins of football because he was a drunkard and because he committed suicide.

    Harrison as the fathers of Australian football, and does not recognise any connection to traditional indigenous games. This stance was not without controversy.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football. Retrieved 18 June The Moreton Bay Courier.

    National Library of Australia. Retrieved 18 November Should he be recognised as one of the 'fathers' of Australian football?

    Bulletin of sport and culture. Victoria University of Technology. Kilda Historical Society Inc. Archived from the original 24 February Reprinted in Blainey, Geoffrey.

    A Game of Our Own: The Origins of Australian Football. The Complete Guide to Australian Football. Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies Bulletin.

    His Spectacular Rise and Tragic Fall. From Sheffield with Love. Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics. Richard Davis, , "Irish and Australian Nationalism: The interview was supported by a complete transcript that appeared on the Radio National website during January The History of Australian Rules Football.

    There is also the "snap", which is almost the same as a checkside punt except that it is kicked off the inside of the foot and curves in the opposite direction.

    It is also possible to kick the ball so that it bounces along the ground. This is known as a "grubber". Grubbers can bounce in a straight line, or curve to the left or right.

    Apart from free kicks, marks or when the ball is in the possession of an umpire for a ball up or throw in , the ball is always in dispute and any player from either side can take possession of the ball.

    A goal , worth 6 points, is scored when the football is propelled through the goal posts at any height including above the height of the posts by way of a kick from the attacking team.

    It may fly through "on the full" without touching the ground or bounce through, but must not have been touched, on the way, by any player from either team or a goalpost.

    A goal cannot be scored from the foot of an opposition defending player. A behind , worth 1 point, is scored when the ball passes between a goal post and a behind post at any height, or if the ball hits a goal post, or if any player sends the ball between the goal posts by touching it with any part of the body other than a foot.

    A behind is also awarded to the attacking team if the ball touches any part of an opposition player, including a foot, before passing between the goal posts.

    When an opposition player deliberately scores a behind for the attacking team generally as a last resort to ensure that a goal is not scored this is termed a rushed behind.

    As of the AFL season , a free kick is awarded against any player who deliberately rushes a behind. The goal umpire signals a goal with two hands pointed forward at elbow height, or a behind with one hand.

    The goal umpire then waves flags above their heads to communicate this information to the goal umpire at the opposite end of the ground.

    The team that has scored the most points at the end of play wins the game. If the scores are level on points at the end of play, then the game is a draw; extra time applies only during finals matches in some competitions.

    As an example of a score report, consider a match between Essendon and Melbourne with the former as the home team. Essendon's score of 11 goals and 14 behinds equates to 80 points.

    Melbourne's score of 10 goals and 7 behinds equates to a point tally. Essendon wins the match by a margin of 13 points.

    Such a result would be written as:. The home team is typically listed first and the visiting side is listed second. The scoreline is written with respect to the home side.

    For example, Port Adelaide won in successive weeks, once as the home side and once as the visiting side. These would be written out thus:.

    The football season proper is from March to August early autumn to late winter in Australia with finals being held in September and October. Most of these hold annual semi-professional club competitions while the others oversee more than one league.

    Local semi-professional or amateur organisations and competitions are often affiliated to their state organisations. The AFL is the de facto world governing body for Australian football.

    There are also a number of affiliated organisations governing amateur clubs and competitions around the world. For almost all Australian football club competitions the aim is to win the Premiership.

    The premiership is always decided by a finals series. The teams that occupy the highest positions on the ladder after the home-and-away season play off in a "semi-knockout" finals series, culminating in a single Grand Final match to determine the premiers.

    Typically between four and eight teams contest the finals series. The team which finishes first on the ladder after the home-and-away season is referred to as a " minor premier ", but this usually holds little stand-alone significance, other than receiving a better draw in the finals.

    Many suburban and amateur leagues have a sufficient number of teams to be played across several tiered divisions, with promotion of the lower division premiers and relegation of the upper division's last placed team at the end of each year.

    At present, none of the top level national or state level leagues in Australia are large enough to warrant this structure.

    The high level of interest shown by women in Australian football is considered unique among the world's football codes. In terms of participation, there are occasional 19th-century references to women playing the sport, but it was not until the s that the first organised women's teams and competitions appeared.

    Many related games have emerged from Australian football, mainly with variations of contact to encourage greater participation. These include Auskick played by children aged between 5 and 12 , kick-to-kick and its variants end-to-end footy and marks up , rec footy , 9-a-side footy , masters Australian football , handball and longest-kick competitions.

    Players outside of Australia sometimes engage in related games adapted to available fields, like metro footy played on gridiron fields and Samoa rules played on rugby fields.

    One such prominent example in use since is AFLX , a shortened variation of the game with seven players a side, played on a soccer -sized pitch.

    The similarities between Australian football and the Irish sport of Gaelic football have allowed for the creation of a hybrid code known as international rules football.

    The first international rules matches were contested in Ireland during the Australian Football World Tour. Since then, various sets of compromise rules have been trialed, and in the International Rules Series commenced with national representative sides selected by Australia's state leagues later by the AFL and the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA.

    The competition became an annual event in , but was postponed indefinitely in when the GAA pulled out due to Australia's severe and aggressive style of play.

    Australian rules football was played outside Australasia as early as when Australians studying at Edinburgh University and London University formed teams and competed in London.

    Twenty countries participated in the Euro Cup and 23 countries have participated in the International Cup with both competitions prohibiting Australian players.

    Over 20 countries have either affiliation or working agreements with the AFL. Many of the overseas-born AFL players have been Irish, as interest in recruiting talented Gaelic football players dates back to the start of the Irish experiment in the s.

    The AFL also selects a team to represent Australia against an Irish team chosen by the Gaelic Athletic Association in the International Rules Series , utilising rules from both codes with the two countries taking turns hosting the series.

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the game spread with the Australian diaspora to areas such as New Zealand and South Africa; however this growth went into rapid decline following World War I.

    Most of the current amateur clubs and leagues in existence have developed since the s, when leagues began to be established in North America , Europe and Asia.

    The sport developed a cult following in the United States when matches were broadcast on the fledgling ESPN network in the s. This expansion has been further aided by multiculturalism and assisted by exhibition matches as well as exposure generated through players who have converted to and from other football codes.

    In , participation across AFL Europe's 21 member nations was more than 5, players, the majority of which are European nationals rather than Australian expats.

    The Australian Football International Cup , held triennially in Melbourne since , is the highest level of international competition.

    Although Australian rules football has not yet been a full sport at the Olympic Games or Commonwealth Games, when Melbourne hosted the Summer Olympics , which included the MCG being the main stadium, Australian rules football was chosen as the native sport to be demonstrated as per International Olympic Committee rules.

    Australian football is a sport rich in tradition and Australian cultural references, especially surrounding the rituals of gameday for players, officials and supporters.

    Australian football has been an inspiration for writers and poets including Manning Clarke , Bruce Dawe and Philip Hodgins. Mike Brady 's hit " Up There Cazaly " is considered an Australian football anthem, and references to the sport can be found in works by popular musicians, from singer-songwriter Paul Kelly to the alternative rock band TISM.

    Australian football has attracted more overall interest among Australians as measured by the Sweeney Sports report than any other football code, and, when compared with all sports throughout the nation, has consistently ranked first in the winter reports, and most recently third behind cricket and swimming in summer.

    In , , registered participants played Australian football in Australia. In that year identities were inducted, including players, 10 coaches, 10 umpires, 10 administrators and six media representatives.

    The elite Legend status was bestowed on 12 members of the Hall of Fame in Ron Barassi , Haydn Bunton Sr.

    The Legend status is the highest honour which can be bestowed on an Australian footballer. The following fourteen members have been promoted to the status of "Legend" since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Contact sport invented in Melbourne. For other uses, see Australian rules disambiguation and Football in Australia. A ruckman leaps above his opponent to win the hit-out during a ball-up.

    Names of Australian rules football. History of Australian rules football. Origins of Australian rules football.

    List of Australian rules football clubs by date of establishment. Interstate matches in Australian rules football.

    Laws of Australian rules football. For terminology, see Glossary of Australian rules football. Australian rules football tactics and skills. Australian rules football playing field.

    Some of the important skills of Australian football. Clockwise from upper left: Women's Australian rules football. Variations of Australian rules football.

    Relationship between Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Geography of Australian rules football.

    Australian rules football culture. Australian rules football in popular culture. Australian Football Hall of Fame.

    Retrieved 22 November Australian Football Official title of the code ". Retrieved 20 June Events That Shaped Australia. Retrieved 18 December Forget the medals, these sports are chasing the gold" 8 May Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 18 June The Complete Guide to Australian Football.

    The Weekly Review Stonnington. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 June Myths and Milestones in the History of Sport.

    Twopeny and the Establishment of Australian Football in Adelaide". The International Journal of the History of Sport.

    Aussie rules a dominant sport in early Queensland" , The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 3 December At the 'Barassi Line', of course Retrieved 21 April Whatever Happened to Australian Rules?

    Hobart, Tasmania, Libra Books. Retrieved 2 November St Kilda want two games in Auckland" , The Age. Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 11 November The Australian Game of Football: Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 28 April Who your club plays".

    Retrieved 1 May Archived from the original on 25 January The Sociology of Sports: Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 8 June The Sydney Morning Herald.

    Hawks overtake Pies, Dons slide". Retrieved 28 September The top 50 TV programs of " , AdNews. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on 4 February Archived from the original PDF on 13 October The Sunday Age Melbourne.

    The publican was a friend of Tom Wills with a personal interest in introducing football to Melbourne's schools. Bryant had played a role in organising early football matches at the nearby Richmond Park and his son was one of the first players.

    Thompson, Alex Bruce, T. Butterworth and Thomas H. Importantly, the rules were widely publicised and distributed.

    A hand-written copy of these first rules still exists. Geoffrey Blainey , Leonie Sandercock , Ian Turner and Sean Fagan have all written in support for the theory that the primary influence was rugby football and other games emanating from English public schools.

    The first rules of Australian football were published in the annual Victorian Cricketer's Guide alongside rules used in English public schools for the purpose of comparison.

    In the edition, J. Football, as played in Victoria, is now fit to run alone. I have accordingly omitted the Rugby and Eton rules, because we seem to have agreed to a code of our own, which, to a considerable extent, combines the merits while excluding the vices of both.

    Writing to Wills in , Thompson recalled that "the Rugby, Eton , Harrow, and Winchester rules at that time I think in came under our consideration, Even Wills, who favoured many rules of Rugby School football, saw the need for compromise.

    There are pronounced similarities to the Sheffield rules which were being formed at a similar time. The most noticeable similarity was the absence of an offside rule and the prevalence of the fair catch or mark.

    One theory claims that may have been due to the influence of Henry Creswick possibly a relative of Nathaniel Creswick who was born in Sheffield but emigrated to Australia with his brother in the town of Creswick is named after them.

    He moved to Melbourne in and became involved in the local cricket scene. Some historians, including Martin Flanagan , [27] Jim Poulter and Col Hutchinson postulate that Tom Wills, who was the son of a politician and a squatter and was educated at Rugby School in England in the s [28] could have been inspired by indigenous Australian pastimes involving possum skin "ball" games sometimes collectively labeled " Marn Grook ".

    Anecdotal evidence of such pastimes appears in the book, The Aborigines of Victoria , in which Robert Brough Smyth relates that William Thomas , a Protector of Aborigines in Victoria, had witnessed Wurundjeri Aborigines east of Melbourne playing a "foot ball" game in The account appears to fit the general description of the traditional game of Marn Grook.

    This appears to be the earliest record of Europeans observing such pastimes. William Blandowski 's sketch of indigenous Australians in Merbein clearly depicts children playing a form of "foot ball".

    Further research has established that this may have been a separate game possibly Woggabaliri. Written record of such traditional pastimes is otherwise scant and as there is no known record of these pastimes in traditional Indigenous Australian art it is not possible to trace its history further.

    The Marn Grook connection is argued as follows. Wills arrived in Victoria's western district in As the only white child in the district, it is said that he was fluent in the local dialect and frequently played with local Aboriginal children on his father's property, Lexington , outside of the town of Moyston.

    However the relationship of the Wills family with local Djabwurrung people is well documented. Jim Poulter has argued that there was a direct link between the Australian rules football and sports played by some members of the indigenous Australian population.

    Poulter argues that Tom Wills had knowledge of Aboriginal oral traditions and language. However, when the rules of Australian rules football were codified, the status of Aboriginal culture in Australia was such that Wills may have been disadvantaged had he mentioned any connection, and as such "had no reason to mention this in discussions".

    Gillian Hibbins in the AFL's official account of the game's history published in for the game's th celebrations sternly rejects the theory:.

    Hibbin's account was widely publicised [33] but was criticised by some indigenous Australians. The question of whether Australian rules football and Gaelic football have shared origins arises because it is clear even to casual observers that the two games are similar.

    O'Dwyer [ citation needed ] and Richard Davis [ citation needed ] have supported the theory that Australian rules football and Gaelic Football have some common origins.

    Though Australian historians, including Geoffrey Blainey , Leonie Sandercock and Ian Turner have specifically rejected any such connection,.

    Since none of the modern football games had been codified at the time, these matches were a traditional gaelic form of football such as caid.

    Patrick O'Farrell has pointed out that another Irish sport with ancient origins, hurling — which has similar rules to Gaelic football — was played in Australia as early as the s, and may also have been an influence on the Australian game.

    O'Dwyer suggested that there is circumstantial evidence that traditional Irish games influenced the founders of Australian rules. These are all elements of Irish football.

    There were several variations of Irish football in existence, normally without the benefit of rulebooks, but the central tradition in Ireland was in the direction of the relatively new game [i.

    Their presence in Victorian football may be accounted for in terms of a formative influence being exerted by men familiar with and no doubt playing the Irish game.

    It is not that they were introduced into the game from that motive [i. Atkinson considers it likely that Geelong's rules were drawn up prior to the first rules of the Melbourne Football Club which were drafted on 17 May In support of his theory are his "records" of the first recorded champion of formalised football in Victoria was Corio Bay later Geelong in and he also claims that an interclub match occurred between Melbourne Cricketers and Geelong in under compromise rules.

    The rules allegedly used by the Geelong Football Club in were originally written down by hand, [42] however there is no record of them from earlier than when they were incorporated by way of compromise into the official Victorian Rules by H C A Harrison and committee:.

    Distance between goals and the goal posts to be decided by captains. Teams of 25 in grand matches, but up to 30 against odds.

    Matches to be played in 2 halves of 50 minutes. At the end of first 50 teams may leave ground for 20 minutes for refreshments but must be ready to resume on time otherwise rival captain can call game off or if his side has scored claim it as a win.

    Game played with yard [sic. When kicked behind goal, ball may be brought 20 yards in front of any portion of the space between the kick off and kicked as nearly as possibly [sic.

    Ball must be bounced every 10 or 20 yards if carried. Tripping, holding, hacking prohibited. Pushing with hands or body is allowed when any player is in rapid motion or in possession of ball, except in the case of a mark.

    Mark is when a player catches the ball before it hits the ground and has been clearly kicked by another player.

    Handball only allowed if ball held clearly in one hand and punched or hit out with other. If caught, no mark. Before game captains toss for ends. In case of infringements, captain may claim free from where breach occurred.

    Except where umpires appointed, opposing captain to adjudicate. In all grand matches two umpires — one from each side — will take up position as near as possible between the goal posts and centre.

    When breach is made appeal to go to nearest umpire. In the 21st century the role played by Tom Wills in the establishment of the game is generally recognised as pivotal.

    However, in the latter part of the 19th century and much of the 20th, H. Harrison was accepted as "the father of Australian rules football".

    He was to become a vice-president of the Victorian Football Association and later the inaugural chairman of the Victorian Football League and was actively associated with the Melbourne Football Club until the late s.

    Journalist Martin Flanagan postulates that the game's administrators engaged in historical revisionism of the story of Tom Wills involvement in the origins of football because he was a drunkard and because he committed suicide.

    Harrison as the fathers of Australian football, and does not recognise any connection to traditional indigenous games.

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    Ein Tor zählt sechs Punkte, ein Behind einen. Greater Western Sydney Giants. Man darf den Gegner auf den Boden werfen wenn er versucht zu passen. Falls der Ball die Seitenlinie boundary line überquert, gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten. Das Team, das am Ende des Spieles die meisten Punkte hat, hat gewonnen. Ein Spiel besteht aus vier Vierteln. Die besten acht Teams der regulären Saison spielen den nationalen Meister in der vierwöchigen Finals series aus. The International Journal of the History of Sport. Retrieved 18 November Mayweather mcgregor uhrzeit 2 Aussie rules The AFL signalled further attempts at expansion in the s by hosting home-and-away matches in New Zealand, [63] followed by China. The Origins of Australian Football. It is up to book of ra auf iphone installieren how they wish too spread the usa casinos online free play among their playing staff. A South Yarra side devised its own rules. These are the laws from which Australian football evolved. The Sydney Morning Herald. The two schools have competed annually ever since for the Cordner—Eggleston Cup. The publican was a friend of Tom Wills with a personal interest in introducing football to Melbourne's schools. Pushing with hands or body is allowed when any player is in rapid motion or in possession of ball, except in the case of a mark. Retrieved 5 December Slot games mini umpire signals time-off to stop the clock for various reasons, such aussie rules the player in possession being tackled into stagnant play. Australian Sociological Association Conference. Many suburban and amateur stargames einloggen have a sufficient number of teams to be played across several tiered divisions, with promotion of the lower division premiers and relegation of the upper division's last placed team at the end of each year. If caught, no mark. Geoffrey BlaineyLeonie SandercockMotopg Turner and Sean Fagan have all written in support for the theory that the primary influence was rugby football and other games emanating from English public schools. Australian football has been an inspiration for writers and poets including Manning ClarkeBruce Dawe and Philip Hodgins. If the scores are level on points at the end of play, then the game is a draw; extra time applies only during finals matches in some em polen gegen deutschland. Apart from free kicks, marks or when the ball is in the possession of an umpire Beste Spielothek in Schemmen finden a ball up or übersetzer go inthe ball is always in dispute and any player from either side can take possession of the ball. The Strength of Strong Ties: A hand-written copy of these first rules still exists. The ANFC ran the Championship of Aussie rulesthe first national cabaret club casino login competition, which commenced in and saw clubs from different states compete on an even playing field. Archived from the original on 22 May

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